The Mediterranean Basin is a hotspot of biodiversity, one of the 34 world regions where the rich and endemic biodiversity is the most at risk of extinction. Species populations living in Mediterranean wetlands face several threats like natural habitat loss, over-exploitation of natural resources, and pollution. They also face a spread of invasive species and the effects of climate change. However, conservation actions have been undertaken for decades in order to protect wild species and their habitats. The Mediterranean Wetlands Living Planet Index (LPI) became an international composite indicator that measures the result of these factors on vertebrate populations.
The LPI reflects changes in the health of biodiversity by tracking trends in species populations of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes. It can be thought of as a biological analogue of a stock market index that tracks the value of a set of stocks and shares traded of an exchange.